• Ashu Mishra

Thyroid disorders: All you should know about.

Our body secretes a small amount of chemical which regulates most of our body functions. These chemicals act as a messenger for our body parts. These messengers are known as hormones and these are released by special structures called glands. These glands are classified into two types: 1. Endocrine glands, and 2. Exocrine glands.

1. Endocrine glands are those which are also known as ductless glands. Such kind of gland does not need any channel or duct to transport their secretions. Their secretions are carried out by blood or other body fluid and reach the target organ and act on it. For example, pituitary gland.

2. Exocrine glands are those which are also known as duct glands. Such kind of gland needs a channel or duct to transport their secretions. For example, Sweat gland.

Thyroid disorder is a common disorder which we can find with this rapidly changing lifestyle. Thyroid disorder may be hereditary, but a person may develop this due to the poor lifestyle. The thyroid is a gland present in the lower region of the neck. It is a butterfly-shaped gland along the front side of the windpipe. This is an endocrine gland and the hormone produced by the gland is called thyroxine (two types: T3 and T4). We can classify Thyroid disorders into five types: 1. Hyperthyroidism 2. Hypothyroidism 3. Iodine deficiency disorder, or Goiter 4. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis 5. Thyroid cancer. Let’s review each one by one.

1. Hyperthyroidism-

Hyperthyroidism is a condition which occurs when our body secretes more amount of thyroxine than required. Hyperthyroidism can increase our body’s metabolism. Some of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism include rapid weight loss, increase in appetite, increasing nervousness and anxiety, heart palpitations, sleep-related disorders, etc. Sometimes hyperthyroidism may lead to Grave’s Ophthalmopathy. This is a condition in which our eyeball protrudes out of the orbit. Hyperthyroidism may cause certain other diseases like heart-related problems, eye problems, skin related problems, etc.


Hypothyroidism is a condition which occurs when our body secretes less amount of thyroxine than required. Hypothyroidism can lead to changes in the female menstrual cycle, can cause hair loss, depression, rapid gain in weight, fatigue, etc. Some of the symptoms include sleepiness, swollen tongue, decreased muscle tone, etc.

3. Iodine deficiency disorder-

Iodine deficiency disorder may be caused due to a decrease in thyroid functioning. It may also be caused due to low iodine diet. Food which contains more amount of iodine is fish, egg, nut, meat, bread, etc. Iron deficiency may cause swelling of the thyroid gland. This may also lead to low IQ and certain mental disabilities.

4. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis-

Another name for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is Lymphocytic thyroiditis. This is an autoimmune disease and, in this condition, the thyroid gland begins to destroy gradually. Autoimmune disease is a condition when our immune system begins to attack our own cells. Hashimoto’s disease can also lead to hypothyroidism. This may be caused due to genetic mutation, exposure to any kind of radiation, etc. The symptoms include the gain in weight, loss of hair, muscle pain and joint pain, etc.

5. Thyroid cancer-

The word Cancer means uncontrolled cell growth of any tissue; thus, thyroid cancer means uncontrolled cell division in the thyroid gland. Initially, it may cause no pain, but at last, it may lead to painful swelling in the neck. Symptoms may include swelling in the neck, difficulty in swallowing, change in voice, etc. There are many types of thyroid cancer; follicular, papillary, anaplastic, medullary, etc.

The thyroid is a common disease and this is mostly caused due to imbalanced diet and by not maintaining a proper healthy lifestyle. All we must do is to eat right, exercise daily, and stay healthy. As the proverb goes, “Healthy body, healthy mind.”

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